Water for the Food Forest
2015 was an exceptionally hot and dry year here. The 2014/15 winter was dry and the only rain we had until November was on our Beltane Retreat. At one point in the summer we thought our deep well had run dry and we became very conscious of the water we were using. We are even more conscious of our water usage now, as we are going off-grid this summer and we aren’t on municipal water – we need to pump our own water.
I used to take water for granted when we lived in London, but water awareness was one of Gaia-Sophia’s first lessons here. First, the well ran dry in the house we rented, even though the roof leaked into our bed when it rained! Then when we moved here we had no water in the cabin for a month and that summer, 2013, the gravity well ran dry. We had another month of driving 10 miles to fill up at the public font that brings water down from the mountains. Many people in Spain still use mountain water for drinking that comes from the public fonts that are all over Spain.
The gravity well is our reserve well as it doesn’t need electricity to run. It’s up the hill from the house and the cabin and we laid a pipe so it flows down the hill when we need it. It’s all we had until we put in a deep well and it only ran dry because we lost a lot of water when we put in the pipe. It just doesn’t have enough pressure to support all our needs when we have guests, or to water the garden. So, last summer we opened up the other well that is in the barn. This is about 15M deep, so we could put in a less powerful pump and the plan was to use that to water the food forest. That well ran dry too! The new plan is not to water the food forest.
Most farmers around here don’t irrigate their fields. They grow potatoes, cabbages, pumpkins and corn and every year they plough in cow manure to get rid of weeds and keep in moisture. We are not ploughing and we’re not using cow manure. Cow manure is full of weed seeds and creates more work than benefits. Our strategy involves swales, ditches, woodchips and trees.
The Lie of the Land
Our food forest is on a gentle south facing slope. Two years ago we cleared the straggly pines that were there there and began the process of laying out beds and terracing the slopes. We had the use of a digger for the initial clearing and to lay out the old chestnut beams that were in the house to make the terraces. The terraces are not formal and not dug out; we are just using the beams to support the downhill side of the beds as we slowly build them up over time with mulch and wood chips. The aim is to retain rain water and minimize soil erosion from water running down the slope. We’ve done most of the rest of the work by hand, mostly just Dean and I, with a few hours here and there from various visitors.
We get around 100cm of rain in a year, which should be plenty to keep the garden growing throughout the year – if we can keep it in the ground! The wettest months are November and March, but we can get showers throughout the year and cloudbursts in late summer. This province, Lugo, is named after Lugo the Celtic god who wielded a spear of lightning. Lughnasa, the first week of August (thereabouts) is when he brings lightening and thunderstorms to recharge the earth. Lugh is a Bearer of the Grail.
Our soil is mineral rich, because no one has farmed here for generations. Before the pines were planted about 20 years ago it would have been cleared pasture for cows and before that it would have been native oak and chestnut woods, that still exist in these parts. If you turn your back for five minutes in a field around here, an oak tree will shoot up! However, the soil is solid clay and without the pines providing shade and a constant supply of mulch, it turns to concrete in the summer when the sun beats down. It’s a beautiful and sheltered location, but it’s very hard on seedlings.
We have planted about 50 fruit and nut trees so far. We lost all the hazelnut trees last summer, as the hosepipe wouldn’t reach them, but all the other trees survived. Mature trees are expert water managers. A mature fruit tree can drink nearly 200L of water a day and our aim is to keep as much water in the soil as we can, so that we can minimize watering in the dry months. It might take us a few years to get to that point, as the trees are still young and not rooted deeply enough, but that’s our aim.
Trees are intelligent beings. You might not be able to hold a conversation with them, but that is just as true for many human creatures. If you plant a tree in the right place and support it when young, with the minimum intervention, it will adjust its needs to whatever the Planetary Animal Mother provides. So last year many of the trees dropped their leaves to conserve water because of the drought, but their roots were safe and they are already budding this year, after a mild wet winter. Trees collect rain and transmit it into the soil. It has been shown that broadleaved trees intercept blowing rain and conduct it down the branches and trunk to the soil. The roots then provide a path which carries the rainwater into the deeper soil layers very quickly. Our indigenous species like ash, alder, chestnut, willow, birch, oak, elm and many hedgerow shrubs are known to be particularly effective even in heavy clay soils, like ours. Coniferous trees are less effective at catching rainwater. Trees reduce flooding and prevent soil erosion, as well as providing shade and evening out the temperature extremes.
Ditches and Swales
Everyone knows what a ditch is and a swale looks like a ditch, except it runs across the contour of the land, rather than down it. A ditch moves water away from where it’s not wanted and a swale retains water where it’s needed.
We are using a combination of ditches and swales, to move rain water away from a very waterlogged area and into the swales. The swales hold more water than would stay on the surface and allow it to gradually percolate downhill below the topsoil, reducing evaporation and encouraging strong plant roots as they reach down for the water.
We have dug three rows of swales across the slope, fed by the ditch, so that the parts of the food forest that were dry now have water leeching below the surface. Initially, we put old wood in the swales, as I’d read that the wood preserves the moisture and prevents more evaporation. I thought it might mean less mosquitoes in summer too. But the swales are so full that with the wood that they overflow all over the beds, so we are making adjustments. It also encourages brambles to fill the swales, as they love old wood. We will probably shore up the downhill side with planks over time, as this will prevent wood chips and mulch from filling the swales.
Mulching and wood chips
If you walk in the woods anywhere around here, the earth is protected by a thick mantle of rich, dark leaf mulch. This is what the food forest was like before we cleared the trees, which stripped off and compacted the mulch layer. Mama does not like to be seen naked, so the weeds then grow prolifically to cover the bare soil. We laid thick layers of hay from the fields when they were cut, to keep the earth covered and some of the weeds away, but it doesn’t work as well for growing as wood chips and mulch, so we strip it away when we make the beds. Hay works well to cover empty beds over winter, to keep them weed free and warm ready for planting in spring. It tends to get fungus easily, so I prefer wood chips.
Mulching reduces evaporation so that the soil stays moist in summer. You can mulch with almost any natural material that you can lay down in layers, like cardboard, old wool carpet or straw. However, some materials take longer to break down than others, so if you want to plant shortly after mulching, wood chips are hard to beat. We haven’t got all the beds covered yet. There’s no tree-cutting service anywhere near us and Dean has to drive to the wood yard 10km away and load up the truck, then we have to wheelbarrow it into place. It’s laborious, but the earth and the plants will thank us for it.
Our aim is to minimize our work in the garden and maximize our enjoyment and yield. It’s a two hour job to water the garden with a hosepipe and when we go off-grid that means two hours of running the pump! Working with nature to manage our water makes so much more sense.